Halamid® has long been associated with successful biosecurity for freshwater trout and for young salmon during the ground-based freshwater lifestages.
Given the proven efficacy of Halamid® against Flavo and other gill bacteria, Amoebic Gill Disease (AGD) and other parasites, Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA), and Fungal diseases such as Seprolagnia, it is no surprise that there has been recurring interest in using Halamid® to treat seawater pathogens as well.
Halamid® has been used to treat wellboat water and disinfect wellboats, nets and cages. On several occasions salmon producers have applied for and received discharge permits to use to tackle difficult outbreaks in open lake cages as well.
It has been demonstrated1 that AGD density on salmonid in seawater can be markedly decreased using Halamid®, which can offer a more practical solution than freshwater bathing for example.
Although Halamid® activity (hence potential toxicity) is marginally higher in seawater than in freshwater2, results from further careful studies3 show that exposure to the recommended dosage of 10 ppm in full-strength seawater for 1 hour is safe for Atlantic salmon smolts.
As the summer months draw on and sea temperatures become warmer the scourge of AGD is likely to affect more sites, so more aquaculture producers and well-boat operators will be rediscovering Halamid® this season.
Further studies are also ongoing in Indonesia to optimise safe and effective treatment rates for tropical seawater species grouper, silver pompano and sea bass at all different life stages.
Further information and guidelines for use can be obtained from local Halamid distributors or www.axcentive.com.
1 O Harris J. et al, Aquaculture Research. 2004, 35, 1448-1456.
2 Powell M.D. et al, Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 2004, 15:83-92.
3 Powell, M.D., Clark, G.A., Aquac. Res. 2004, 35, 112-123.